Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are potentially traumatic events that occur in childhood (0-17 years). Examples may include experienced violence, abuse or neglect; witnessed violence in the home or community; or a family member’s attempt or death by suicide. Additional examples are aspects of a child’s environment that can undermine their sense of safety, stability, and bonding, including substance misuse, mental health problems, and instability due to parental separation or a member of the household in jail or prison. ACEs are linked to chronic health problems, mental illness, and substance misuse in adulthood, and can negatively impact education and job opportunities.
Community Service Boards (CSBs)
Community Services Boards (CSBs) are the points of entry for publicly funded mental health, substance use disorder, and developmental services for intellectual disabilities (ID) and/or developmental disabilities (DD). They exist to provide comprehensive mental health, developmental, and substance use services within a continuum of care.
Roughly half of individuals who experience a SUD during their lives will also experience a co-occurring mental disorder and vice versa. Co-occurring disorders can include anxiety disorders, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, personality disorders, and schizophrenia, among others. While SUDs and other mental disorders co-occur, one does not necessarily cause the other.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM5)
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the handbook used by health care professionals in the United States and much of the world as the authoritative guide for descriptions, symptoms, and other criteria for diagnosing mental health disorders. It provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about their patients and establishes consistent and reliable diagnoses that can be used in the research of mental disorders. It also provides a common language for researchers to study the criteria for potential future revisions and to aid in the development of medications and other interventions.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy was initially developed in 1987 for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and is guided by the Adaptive Information Processing model. Unlike other treatments that focus on directly altering the emotions, thoughts and responses resulting from traumatic experiences, EMDR individualize therapy focuses directly on the memory, and is intended to change the way that the memory is stored in the brain, thus reducing and eliminating the problematic symptoms.
Similar to Psychology Today, Good Therapy is a group focused on psychology, behavior, mental health, and the like. Its website offers blogs and articles written by a wide range of mental health professionals and also publishes a bimonthly magazine. The site offers a provider directory and a feature to search for mental health providers nearby. Information may be filtered by type of therapy, location, insurance type, and so on.
Harm reduction is a set of practical strategies and ideas aimed at reducing negative consequences associated with drug use. Harm Reduction is also a movement for social justice built on a belief in, and respect for, the rights of people who use drugs.
Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOPs)
Intensive outpatient programs (IOPs) are treatment programs used to address addictions, depression, eating disorders, or other dependencies that do not require detoxification or round-the-clock supervision. They enable patients to continue with their normal, day-to-day lives in a way that residential treatment programs do not. Whereas residential treatment requires that clients reside on site, clients in intensive outpatient programs live at home.
The action of prohibiting or forbidding something. Generally applied to “The War on Drugs” or efforts to limit the dissemination, purchasing, etc. of substances.
Medication-Assisted Treatment/Medications (MAT) for Opioid Use Disorder
Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is the use of medications, in combination with counseling and behavioral therapies, to provide a “whole-patient” approach to the treatment of substance use disorders. Medications used in MAT are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and MAT programs are clinically driven and tailored to meet each patient’s needs. Research shows that a combination of medication and therapy can successfully treat these disorders, and for some people struggling with addiction, MAT can help sustain recovery. MAT is also used to prevent or reduce opioid overdose.
Mutual Support or Aid Group
Self-help groups, also known as mutual aid groups, are groups of people with similar experiences who provide mutual support to one another to manage or overcome issues through face to face or online support groups. The approach is based on groupwork – sharing experiences openly with other people.
Pathway of Recovery
A pathway of recovery is an individual’s journey through the recovery process. Recovery can entail therapy, medication-assisted treatment, AA/NA (12-step programs), or other paths. Every individual’s journey will be different and thus should be respected.
In the first days and weeks following cessation of drug and alcohol use, individuals may experience acute withdrawal symptoms. PAWS refers to any symptoms that persist after the initial, acute, withdrawal has resolved. Each episode of PAWS can last for a few days, and can continue cyclically for a year. Withdrawal syndrome refers to the symptoms that occur when a substance-dependent person abruptly stops taking that substance. Both illicit and prescription drugs can cause withdrawal. It may last anywhere from a few days to a couple weeks.
Programs for Assertive Community Treatment (PACT)
Programs for Assertive Community Treatment (PACT) is individualized care provided to patients with severe mental health issues. ACT teams work with severely mentally ill patients to ensure continuity of care from a hospital to an outpatient practice, improve patients’ ability to function in the community, and reduce the need for future hospitalization. The team may plan and monitor treatment, accompany patients to medical and dental appointments, represent them at hearings, and help them manage money, pay bills, and apply for services. Patients also receive help with housekeeping, shopping, cooking, transportation, finding and keeping jobs, and obtaining housing. Team members educate the patients about mental illness, provide drug abuse counseling, and help patients cope with psychotic episodes and other psychiatric crises. They may also order, deliver, and supervise the use of medications.
Most of these services are provided not in a clinic but in a patient’s home or, for homeless patients, in a shelter or on the streets. The staff meets daily to coordinate its work, and at least one member is available at all times. The team takes referrals but may also reach out to patients on its own. Team members try to develop a long-term relationship with patients, following them for years if necessary, even as they pass through hospitals, jails, and homeless shelters.
Psychology Today is a media group focused on psychology, behavior, mental health, and the like. Its website offers blogs and articles written by a wide range of mental health professionals and also publishes a bimonthly magazine. Notably, the site offers a search feature allowing individuals to search for mental health providers close to them. Information may be filtered by types of therapy, location, insurance type, and so on.
Recovery Community Centers
Recovery Community Centers are peer-operated centers that serve as local resources of community-based recovery support. People do not live at these centers, but rather these resources can help individuals build recovery capital at the community level by providing advocacy training, recovery information and resource mobilization, mutual-help or peer-support organization meetings (e.g., Alcoholics Anonymous, SMART Recovery, LifeRing), social activities, and other community-based services. They may also help facilitate supportive relationships among individuals in recovery, as well as community and family members. In turn, this increased recovery capital helps individuals initiate and sustain recovery over time. Recovery Community Centers may also play a unique role that builds on professional services and mutual-help organizations by connecting recovering individuals to social services, employment and skills training, and educational agencies.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Congress established the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in 1992 to make substance use and mental disorder information, services, and research more accessible. The SAMHSA is the agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that leads public health efforts to advance the behavioral health of the nation. SAMHSA’s mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America’s communities.